The following have Monégasque nationality:
- any person born in Monaco or abroad of a Monégasque father
- any person born in Monaco or abroad of a mother born Monégasque who still had this nationality at the time of the birth and of an unknown father;
- any person born in Monaco of unknown parents.
With regards to legitimate offspring, Monégasque nationality is passed on without it being necessary to fulfill any other condition; on the other hand, in the case of natural offspring, this handing-on of nationality only takes place if the child is recognized or legitimized by marriage of its parents.
A foreign woman, having reached her majority or not, who marries a Monégasque acquires Monégasque nationality.
However, she does not become an elector or eligible to be candidate in elections until a period of five years has passed since the date of the marriage.
A Monégasque woman who marries a foreigner retains her Monégasque nationality unless she expressly states that she wishes, in conformity with the arrangement of the national law of her husband, to acquire the nationality of this latter.
This declaration must be made at the time of the celebration of the marriage in answer to the questions posed by the Registrar, otherwise it is invalid; such declaration is to be noted on the marriage certificate.
If the marriage is celebrated abroad, the declaration must be made before the marriage is celebrated, before a diplomatic or consular representative of the Principality of Monaco otherwise it is invalid.
A – By reason of birth
During the year following his majority, any person listed below may acquire Monégasque nationality by means of a declaration made before a Registrar provided that he lives in the Principality and proves that he has had his legal domicile or habitual residence there during his minority:
- Any person born in Monaco of a parent born Monégasque, even if this latter has lost this nationality;
- Any person born in Monaco of a Monégasque parent and of whom one of the ancestors of the same branch was born Monégasque, even if the parent or ancestor has lost this nationality
This right is also open, without conditions as to the place of birth or habitual residence or legal domicile, to a minor, born before July 11, 1975, before the acquisition of Monégasque nationality by his father.
B – By reason of adoption
The foreigner who has reached his majority and who has been adopted by a Monégasque may acquire Monégasque nationality by means of a declaration made before the Registrar, provided that he proves loss of his previous nationality and has established his domicile or habitual residence in Monaco for at least ten years.
If the adopted person is a minor, it is his legal representative who acts in his name. In the year following his majority, the minor whose consent was not sought has, however, the opportunity to repudiate his Monégasque nationality.
In the case of a Monégasque adopted by a foreigner, he retains his nationality if he does not acquire that of the person adopting him.
C – Municipal rule
The person obtaining Monégasque nationality does not possess political rights, that is, may neither be an elector nor present himself as a candidate, until the fifth year following the date on which he acquired this nationality.
The person who wishes to acquire Monégasque nationality must prove:
- that taking Monégasque nationality will cause him to lose his previous nationality;
- that naturalization will definitely relieve him of the obligation to perform military service abroad;
- that he has resided ten years in the Principality after reaching the age of twenty one; this residence must be unbroken and in effect at the moment the request for naturalization is made and not be mere residence at an earlier period.
The following are exempted from fulfilling the condition requiring ten years residence:
- a foreigner whom the Prince judges worthy of this favor;
- a woman married to a foreigner whose husband requests naturalization or who has already obtained it;
- children, who are still minors, of a naturalized foreigner, provided that they reside in Monaco at the moment of their request.
The request must be addressed, on stamped paper, directly to the Prince.
Naturalization is granted by sovereign ordinance. Decisions rejecting or deferring the request are not subject to appeal; the request may always be rejected, even if the person making the request satisfies the conditions laid down, as these latter merely confer the right to make the request for naturalization.
Monégasque nationality is granted automatically to children who are minor of a father or a mother surviving her husband ( in the event of the death of this latter) who obtains naturalization.
These children have, however, the opportunity to renounce their nationality by making a declaration before the Registrar in the Year which follows the date on which they reach their majority.